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 Sir George John Scott Warrender of Lochend, 7th Baronet

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PostSubject: Sir George John Scott Warrender of Lochend, 7th Baronet   Thu Oct 08, 2009 9:00 pm

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Sir George John Scott Warrender of Lochend, 7th Baronet K.C.B. K.C.V.O. (31 July 1860 – 8 January 1917) was a Vice-Admiral in the Royal Navy during World War I.

Warrender was the son of Sir George Warrender, 6th Baronet (1825-1901) and Helen Purves-Hume-Campbell, born at Bruntsfield House, Edinburgh. He married Lady Ethel Maud Ashley Cooper, daughter of the 8th earl of Shaftesbury, on 6 February 1894 at St. Paul's Church, Knightsbridge, London. He had three children, Sir Victor Alexander George Anthony Warrender 8th Bt., 1st Baron Bruntisfield (1942), Harold John Warrender and Violet Helen Marie Warrender. The family were respected in society, and Queen Victoria agreed to be godmother to Victor.
Warrender joined the navy as a cadet in 1873 at Dartmouth. He qualified as a French interpreter in 1878. He served in the Zulu War in 1879 as midshipman on the corvette HMS Boadicea. As a member of the naval brigade he was part of the force send to relieve Eshowe and was present at the Battle of Gingindlovu, so receiving the South Africa medal. In 1880 he was promoted to Lieutenant, specialising in gunnery.

He was a staff officer at HMS Excellent between 1884 and 1885, the second lieutenant on the cruiser Amphion from 11 December 1888 serving on the Pacific Station, It listed her commissioned and warrant officers as follows: and was promoted to commander in 1893. He commanded the royal yacht HMY Victoria and Albert II between 1896 and 1899.
He was appointed captain on 13 May 1899. He fought at the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 as flag captain to Rear-Admiral Sir James A.T. Bruce, K.C.M.G. and commander of HMS Barfleur (1899-1902). He was captain of HMS Lancaster in the Mediterranean between 1904 and 1905, followed by the command of HMS Carnavon, also in the Mediterranean from 1905. From 1907 to 1908 he was Aide-de-Camp to King Edward VII and on 2 July 1908 he was promoted to Rear Admiral. He served as Commander in chief of the East Indies Station from 1907 to 1909. He became commander of the second cruiser squadron in 1910, serving as such until 1912, and was awarded KCVO in 1911. He became commander of the 2nd Battle Squadron, with the new dreadnought battleship HMS King George V as his flagship, in 1912, holding the command until December 1915, and was awarded KCB in 1913. He was promoted to Vice-Admiral on 4 June 1913.
In June 1914, just before the outbreak of the First World War his squadron visited the German naval port of Kiel, during the annual regatta attended by Kaiser Wilhelm II and senior German admirals. The objective was to show off the modern British ships, and also inspect the German fleet. During the weeklong visit, news arrived of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. Warrender's final message of farewell, in line with the spirit of the visit and the welcome, which they had received, was Friends in the past, friends forever.

During his tour, a German officer, Lieutenant George von Hase, was selected to accompany Warrender and act as his aid and translator. Hase was required to write a report about Warrender and other British officers he met, and later wrote a book describing the visit. He described Warrender as clean-shaven and good looking, with an aristocratic face and fine blue eyes. He seemed around 50 with greying hair, but retained the vigour of a younger man. He appeared self-possessed and decided and was popular amongst his men because of his care for their concerns. Business was handled with short orders and short replies, so that despite an absence of military formalities everything was done professionally. Warrender was noticeably deaf: He could understand his staff without problem, but could sometimes have difficulty with other officers and strangers, particularly in a noisy environment such as a party. At dinner, seated with the Kaiser unfortunately on his deaf side, he had difficulty maintaining the conversation. He was reputed to be a good tennis player and splendid golfer.

The Admiral's wife accompanied him on the visit, staying on board the Hamburg-Amerika liner Viktoria Luise, which was customarily berthed in Kiel every year for Kiel week. This ship became the centre of high society for the occasion. There was a hectic round of social engagements, where the admiral had to be whisked between simultaneous events so as to be seen attending. Sporting competitions were arranged between English and German teams. Hase noted that the Germans won most of the events, except for football. He described the English sailors as noticeably small, while 70 men from George V were under 17 and he considered that there were a disproportionate number of older men. Hase was instructed by Warrender to convey an invitation to Admiral von Ingenohl for any German officers who wished to visit and inspect the British ships. Ingenohl declined, on the grounds that he was forbidden to show visitors many parts of his ships. Warrender responded that, of course, some parts of British ships would also be off-limits and that he understood such restrictions, so visits were eventually arranged. British officers were only allowed to visit the older Deutschland class battleships, while important installations on British ships were covered. However, Hase reported that he was friendly with Commander Brownrigg, the gunnery officer, was happy to show him around almost all the ship, except for the 'firing director' which was regarded as strictly secret. Lord Brassey, who had arrived at Kiel on his own yacht, managed to become lost, and was found wandering in the secret submarine yard.

On the afternoon of 28 June news arrived of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, who had been a friend of the British ambassador to Germany, Edward Goschen, who was also staying on George V. A discussion ensued at which Hase was present, where Warrender warned of the likelihood that many European countries would now be drawn into a war. Social engagements were cancelled, although the regatta events were completed.

Early the following morning the Kaiser departed for Vienna. The day continued on a somber note, with lunch on board George V for German admirals. Afterwards these were invited to tour the ship, but only Admiral Ingenohl and his officers accepted, and were given a demonstration of the main guns operating. Later Warrender attended a party given by British sailors for their German counterparts in return for the welcome they had received. Warrender was welcomed by a wave of thunderous stamping, and jumped onto a table to give a speech about friendship between the two nations. Three cheers were given for the German navy, before Rear Admiral Mauwe climbed on the table to respond and call three cheers for the English. The room once again resounded to stamping approval. In the evening Warrender attended the official Imperial Yacht club dinner, now presided over by Prince Henry, in the Kaiser's absence.
Hase commented on conversations with Warrender about the consequences of submarines on warfare. Although Warrender did not agree with views expressed by Admiral Percy Scott that submarines would bring an end to Britain's control of the seas, he did agree that in future close blockade would be impossible. He observed that German officers had suggested the preparation of Scapa Flow as a long-range naval base for the blockade of Germany.
Shortly after the Kiel visit Warrender temporarily commanded the Grand Fleet ordered to move to Scapa Flow after annual exercises, when a declaration of war was considered imminent.

Warrender was considered a good admiral during peacetime, but his reputation suffered as the war proceeded. His squadron was regarded as one of the best trained in gunnery in the fleet. He was described by Commodore William Goodenough as having an imperturbability that no circumstances could ruffle, although others ascribed this stolidity to simply a lack of initiative.
One of the battleships in his command, HMS Audacious, sank after striking a mine when at sea for gunnery practice in October 1914. He commanded a British squadron of six battleships, four battle cruisers, cruisers and destroyers which attempted to intercept Admiral Hipper following Hipper's raid on Scarborough. Hipper escaped, some of his ships slipping past Warrender despite being spotted and coming within range of his superior force. First Sea Lord Fisher wanted Warrender replaced for his poor performance, but Warrender was a friend of Admiral John Jellicoe commanding the Grand Fleet, who kept him in his post because of his past experience handling large fleets. Warrender was also suffering from increasing deafness and was replaced in December 1915. He became Commander in Chief at Devonport dockyard, Plymouth in 1916, but asked for retirement in December 1916 because of increasingly poor health. He died in January 1917, was cremated at Golders Green on 12 January and his ashes placed at the church of the Annunciation, Bryanston Street, London.
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PostSubject: Re: Sir George John Scott Warrender of Lochend, 7th Baronet   Sun Jan 23, 2011 10:47 pm

George John Scott Warrender.
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PostSubject: Re: Sir George John Scott Warrender of Lochend, 7th Baronet   Mon Feb 14, 2011 10:11 pm

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Taken from the archives of the Library of Congress, thus in the public domain in the United States of America.

SIR George John Scott Warrender, Seventh Baronet, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., Royal Navy (31 July, 1860 – 8 January, 1917) was an officer of the Royal Navy. He entered the Navy in 1873 and enjoyed an active sea-going career with relatively few periods of shore duty. He served ashore in the Anglo-Zulu War, qualified in gunnery duties and served in the Pacific and on the China Station. He commanded a Naval Brigade during the Boxer Rebellion, and later commanded the East Indies Squadron. He succeeded to his father's baronetcy in 1901. After command of a cruiser squadron he was given command of the Second Battle Squadron, which command he held for the first year of the First World War. He was elevated to Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth in 1916, but was forced through ill-health to relinquish command and retire from the Navy in December of that year, dying early in 1917 at the age of fifty-six.

George John Scott Warrender was born on 31 July, 1860, the second son of Sir George Warrender, Sixth Baronet, of Lochend, Haddingtonshire, and of Helen, only child of Sir Hugh Hume-Campbell, Seventh Baronet, of Marchmont, Berwickshire.Warrender entered the training ship Britannia on 15 January, 1873. He was rated a Midshipman on 19 December, 1874 and appointed to the frigate Raleigh on 1 June, 1875.He was appointed to the corvette Boadicea on 9 July, 1878.On 10 July he passed as an interpreter in French.

While in the Boadicea he landed with the Naval Brigade in the Anglo-Zulu War in 1879, and accompanied the Eshowe Relief Column. He was present at the Battle of Ginghilovo [Gingindlovu] on 2 April and received the South African Medal 1877-1879 and clasp for his participation. The battle saw a Zulu impi of 11,000 men try and destroy an encamped British force of 6,000, in an attempt to repeat the Zulu success at the Battle of Isandlwana, when 1,300 British troops had been killed. At Ginghilovo, the British lost only eleven men killed, while the Zulus lost over a thousand. The battle allowed to raise the two-month long Siege of Eshowe by Zulu forces on 3 April. He served ashore from 19 March to 27 May. Another Midshipman from Boadicea who served with the column was Stanley C. J. Colville, later Admiral Sir Stanley Colville.On 31 July, 1879 he took a First Class certificate in his Seamanship examination and was promoted Acting Sub-Lieutenant. From October, 1879 to May, 1880 he was appointed to H.M.S. Excellent to study for his Lieutenancy examinations at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, which he passed on 26 May, 1880. He took three firsts and received a prize for his efforts,and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on 7 September, 1880.

On 7 December, 1880, Warrender was appointed to Champion. In his S.183. report of December, 1881 his knowledge of French was highlighted and he was described as "a promising officer." On 29 June, 1882 he was ordered home from the China Station at his own expense to take the gunnery course at Excellent and arrived in Britain on 29 August. His appointment to Excellent dated 30 September. On 28 March, 1883 he reported as sick at home with "Scarlatina"?. In his final examination at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich for Gunnery Lieutenant in July, 1883 he obtained a Second Class Certificate, confirmed on 16 May, 1884. On 19 May, Warrender was appointed as a Junior Staff Officer to Excellent with Lieutenants Hugh Williams and John Jellicoe. One of the three Senior Staff Officers was Percy Scott, and the Captain was John Fisher.On 18 April, 1885 he was appointed to Alexandra as Gunnery Officer of Orion, which commissioned on 26 April. On 2 April, 1888 he was telegraphed to return home in Tamar to requalify in gunnery duties. He arrived back in Britain on 13 April and appointed to Excellent on 25 May. On 7 June he was reappointed to the Junior Staff in place of an ill "Lieut. Nicholson". He was lent to Warspite as Gunnery Officer on 20 June and reappointed to Excellent on 24 August to requalify, and on 27 October he became Gunnery Officer of Duke of Wellington.

After a little over a month, on 11 December, 1888 Warrender was appointed First Lieutenant and Gunnery Officer of Amphion for service in the Pacific. The ship paid off three years later, on 25 January, 1892. On 2 April he was reappointed to Excellent to re-qualify in Gunnery Duties on 16 June. On 21 July he was appointed First Lieutenant and Gunnery Officer of the Forth until she paid off on 16 September. He was thence appointed to the same position in the Active on 14 October, for service in the Training Squadron. He was promoted to the rank of Commander on 30 June, 1893 in the half-yearly promotions, and was instructed to remain as First Lieutenant of Active until relieved.On 26 October he was appointed Secretary to a Committee advising on the defence of the Medway. On 2 November it was confirmed that his secretarial service would "count as full service" in relation to his pay and benefits. He was superseded on 6 January, 1894.

On 6 February, 1894 in St. Paul's Church, Knightsbridge, Warrender married Lady Ethel Maud Ashley-Cooper, the youngest daughter of the Eighth Earl of Shaftesbury.Her
family was of Irish stock and the Eighth Earl had been a major Belfast landlord. Her brother (the Ninth Earl) was later Lord Mayor of the city.Warrender was promptly appointed to the battleship Centurion heading for the China Station on 14 February, where he remained until he was appointed to the Royal Yacht Victoria and Albert on 13 May, 1896. During his service in Centurion, he was described by Admiral Sir Edmund Robert Fremantle as, "A smart, energetic + efficient senior executive." He returned to Britain on 3 June. The Warrenders' first child, Violet Helen Marie Warrender, was born on 20 November, 1896.According to historian Paul G. Halpern, "The family connections of both Warrender and his wife gave them the entrée into society and they were well known in the London social world.On 23 June, 1899 the Warrenders' second child, Victor Alexander George Anthony Warrender (later First Baron Bruntisfield), was born.Queen Victoria acted as godmother.On 13 May Warrender had been promoted to the rank of Captain, and on 11 July he was appointed to command the protected cruiser Brilliant for the annual manœuvres.

On 26 October, 1899, Warrender was appointed to command the battleship Barfleur, again on the China Station.When the Boxer Rebellion broke out in May, 1900,Warrender was serving as Flag Captain to Rear-Admiral James A. T. Bruce, second-in-command of the China Squadron.On 11 June—the day after the Commander-in-Chief, Vice-Admiral Edward Seymour, had led a relief force to Peking—a 150 man contingent under Warrender's executive officer, Commander David Beatty, went ashore to assist in the defence of the town of Tientsin. On 25 June, Warrender, then in command off the Taku forts, ordered the destroyer Fame under Lieutenant Roger Keyes to reconnoitre, who then proceeded to seize Hain Cheng fortress with 32 men. For his services during the Boxer Rebellion, Warrender was awarded a gratuity.

On return to Britain, Warrender took command of the cruiser Hawke on 21 May, 1903, and on 5 April, 1904 assumed command of the armoured cruiser Lancaster and superseded on 1 March, 1905.The Warrenders' third child, Harold John Warrender, had been born on 15 November, 1903.On 11 May, 1905 Warrender was appointed to Vivid to take commission the new armoured cruiser Carnarvon, which command he retained until 1 August, 1906. On 23 September, 1905 he was appointed to Excellent for a Gunnery Course, which he completed on 21 October. He was appointed to Vernon on 17 March, 1906 for a Torpedo Course. On 1 February, 1907 he was appointed to hoist his broad pennant in Hyacinth as Commodore, First Class in command of the East Indies Station. He was re-appointed as Commander-in-Chief upon his promotion to Rear-Admiral on 2 July, 1908. He was superseded on 3 March, 1909.

Flag Rank

On 14 March, 1910 Warrender was appointed to a Signal Course, and from 7 March to 23 June took the War Course. On 29 November, 1910 Warrender was appointed Rear-Admiral Commanding the Second Cruiser Squadron. From 15 December, 1911 to 5 January, 1912 he served as a member of a Gunnery Conference at the Admiralty, attached to H.M.S. President, for which, having issued its report, "Appreciation [was] expressed for care & trouble taken." He struck his flag in command of the Second Cruiser Squadron on 11th December. On 16 December, he was appointed to succeed Sir John Jellicoe in command of the Second Battle Squadron of the Home Fleet (formerly the Second Division), with the rank of Acting Vice-Admiral.He was confirmed in the rank on 4 June, 1913, vice Galloway, placed on the Retired List. When the Naval Society was formed in 1913 with the intent of publishing the independent journal, The Naval Review, Warrender offered financial help and was listed among those who were "very sympathetic."In 1914, with the domestic situation in Ireland worsening and with civil war looming over the question of Home Rule, Warrender allegedly threatened to resign if arms were taken up against Protestant Ulster, along with his Commander-in-Chief, Sir George Callaghan.In April of that year, he was one of the Home Fleet commanders whose opinion on rate of fire was solicited by the Admiralty. He replied, in part, "It is considered more important to have the ammunition provided and ready for immediate use and to risk the chance of a cordite fire, rather than to guard against a fire, and to have the ship unprepared for an attack.

Baltic Visit
From 23 June to 30 June, 1914, Warrender took the Second Battle Squadron and Commodore, Second Class William Goodenough's First Light Cruiser Squadron to the German port of Kiel as part of a trip to visit the Baltic. A German Officer, Georg von Hase, was appointed as Warrender's personal Aide-de-Camp during the visit and later recalled of him: Vice-Admiral Sir George Warrender, Bart., is a distinguished man of the world of the true English type. He is self-possessed and decided. The officers of his staff and his ship have a high opinion of his qualities, and he is said to be very popular in his squadron, thanks to his personal character and his care for his men. As we came into harbour, and subsequently, I was particularly struck with the way in which he and, indeed, almost all the other English officers settled all official questions. It was a matter of short orders and short replies, for which the English language is particularly suited. No superfluous words on duty. Thus, in spite of a general absence of military formalities in address, conversation and behaviour, the manner in which work was carried on seemed to me very sailor-like and professional. Warrender is hard of hearing, but the officers of his staff have had such good practice with him that he understands them even when they speak softly. He was in difficulties with the other officers and strangers, particularly when general conversation was at its height at table. When I was with the Admiral alone, as when members of his staff were present, he made most minute inquiries about affairs in the German Navy, and was particularly anxious to learn about the conditions of life and service and the spirit of our officers and men. He also showed the liveliest interest in our wireless and petrol engines, particularly our submarine engines. It had become second nature with him and with his officers to compare their own navy with ours. Sir George Warrender frequently showed himself a superlative conversationalist. He knew some German, though he never spoke German in conversation. At his request I translated every day the German newspaper articles and letters which discussed the visit of his squadron. Sir George Warrender is said to be a good tennis player and a splendid golfer.

When the news of Archduke Franz Ferdinand's assassination in Belgrade was announced on the 28th, Von Hase recorded Warrender's response, "He told me frankly of the consequences the assassination might have. He bluntly expressed his fears—indeed his conviction—that this crime would mean war between Serbia and Austria, that Russia will be drawn in and thus Germany and France could not remain lookers-on." A dinner and ball planned for the evening were cancelled and the Kaiser decided to depart for Vienna the following day. On the morning of the 29th Warrender, Goodenough and their staffs assembled to see the Kaiser off from the dockyard railway station, and each spoke with him for a few minutes. Warrender then attended the public funeral of a German naval aviator, Lieutenant Schroeter, who had crashed during the Regatta Week. He hosted a final luncheon in King George V for German flag officers and their wives, von Tirpitz and von Ingenohl among others. Afterwards, Warrender offered his guests a tour of the flagship, which only von Ingenohl accepted. But even Admiral Warrender thought that submarines would effect a fundamental change in the strategic situation in the future, and that, owing to them, a distant blockade only, i.e., in Norwegian waters, would be possible.When the squadron left on 30 June, he radioed his German hosts the salutation, "Friends in past and friends for ever."Great War Service

Scarborough Raid
Main article: Action of 16 December, 1914.
Warrender's first and ultimately only opportunity for action came on 16 December. On 14 December Room 40 had deduced from intercepted German signals that Scouting Group I would clear the Jade in the morning of the 15th and attack Harwich and the Humber on the 16th. To counter this force, Warrender was despatched at 05:30 on the 15th with his available from Scapa, (King George V, Ajax, Centurion, Orion, Monarch and Conqueror). The light cruiser Boadicea had been attached but was forced to return after being damaged by heavy weather in the Pentland Firth. Goodenough's First Light Cruiser Squadron had just come in to Scapa to coal, and could only muster four ships. The cruiser Blanche was attached, but she too was damaged leaving Scapa and had to return to port.Beatty's First Battle Cruiser Squadron left Cromarty with four battle cruisers at 06:00. Owing to the bad weather he was followed by the destroyers of the Fourth Flotilla independently.At Jellicoe's instigation, Rear-Admiral William C. Pakenham's Third Cruiser Squadron of four ships was despatched from Rosyth to join Warrender's force, and Commodore Tyrwhitt was ordered to sea from Harwich at Jellicoe's suggestion. He departed at 14:00 with four light cruisers and two flotillas of destroyers. As senior officer, Warrender had overall command of the force.
Warrender and Beatty met off the Moray Firth 11:00 on the 15th, and by 15:00 all the British forces were within sight. Jellicoe had set the rendezvous for the forces involved as 54°10'N., 3°00'E., for 07:30 the following morning, on the 16th. The British rendezvous was only thirty miles away from the position chosen by the German commander, 54°40'N., 3°00'E. Warrender signalled to Beatty that he considered that the target of the German bombardment could as easily be against Harwich or the Humber as against Hartlepool or Scarborough. With only seven destroyers in company, he requested that Tyrwhitt's light forces be attached as a screen for his force, but this was denied. Tyrwhitt was ordered to be off Yarmouth for dawn the next morning, the 16th. Commodore Roger Keyes was ordered out with eight submarines to be at Terschelling late on the 16th so as to cut off the German return to base. Warrender meanwhile set his night dispositions.The order he adopted had the battle cruisers five miles ahead of his battleships, Goodenough's light cruisers five miles to his Starboard (Westward) and Pakenham's cruisers five miles to his Port (Eastward).

During the night, Hipper's scouting group passed ahead of the British at 00:15 on the 16th. The errant German destroyer S-33, while returning to Germany after losing touch, sighted four of Warrender's destroyers at 04:00, and reported their position to Hipper. At 05:15 the four destroyers, led by Lynx, , with the other three destroyers trailing, were steaming S.E. ten miles to the East of Warrender's battleships, with orders to close at daylight to act as a screen.Then the British destroyers sighted V-155, sent by the the German cruiser Roon to investigate a Dutch merchantman. Both sides issued challenges until fire was opened at 05:25. The German ship shot better than her opponents, and Lynx and Ambuscade took hits. At 05:53 the German light cruiser Hamburg with two torpedo boats sighted the three unengaged British destroyers and opened fire. Hardy was badly hit, but after 06:00 Hamburg turned away to avoid torpedoes and did not re-engage.
Later Service

On 16 June, Jellicoe confided to Sir Henry Jackson that, "My Vice-Admirals are always a little shaky. Warrender gets awfully deaf at times [a complaint Jellicoe himself suffered from and is inclined to be absent-minded, but on the other hand he has had unique experience in command and is excellent as a squadron admiral in peace. I am not always quite happy about him."Jellicoe later noted that, "Warrender used to visit me so frequently that he delayed my work.He wrote to Beatty on 23 November, "George Warrender is relieved by Jerram 16th December. I shall feel his departure most keenly. He is the soul of his squadron and the most loyal of comrades."Warrender struck his flag on 16 December and assumed the position of Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth on 20 March, 1916. On 11 November he was granted six weeks leave after an attack of Pleurisy. On the 30th he was found unfit for further service, and on 3 December he was asked whether he wanted to retire. On 5 December, 1916 he was superseded in the Plymouth command and went on the Retired List at his own request the following day.

Warrender died on 8 January, 1917, at his home in London, 23 Great Cumberland Place. He was cremated at Golders Green on 12 January, and his ashes were interred at the Church of the Annunciation, Bryanston Street, London.His eldest son, Victor Alexander Anthony George Warrender, succeeded to the title as Eighth Baronet.

Editor's Assessment Halpern, in his overview of Warrender's life, concludes: "Warrender remains one of the prime examples of a naval leader who, whatever his personal qualities and distinguished record in time of peace, did not rise to the very different demands of war." This is an absurdly harsh conclusion given that Warrender had but one opportunity to prove himself. By Halpern's own admission, of the mistakes made on 16 December, 1914, "the most egregious probably were not made by Warrender"Beatty, Goodenough and other officers were given second chances to prove themselves. Through indifferent health, Warrender never received his second chance, being relieved of command afloat six months before the Battle of Jutland, when in all probability he would have led the British line of battle against his hosts of 1914.
Gordon deplores Jellicoe's defence of Warrender, "excellent as a squadron admiral in peace", as "incredible grounds" for keeping him in post. This editor is not convinced that Gordon has satisfactorily identified the pre-requisites for command of a Battle Squadron in war, let alone in peace, a criticism which can also be leveled at Halpern. No doubt Gordon would have preferred a Beatty, "apt to be rash in conclusion", rather than someone perceived to be a stalwart like Warrender, with what Admiral Sir William Goodenough termed "an imperturbability that no circumstances could ruffle. Jellicoe's only concern appears to have been with Warrender's health. Any other criticisms are unfounded in the face of the existing evidence.

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