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 Captain Howard Hutton, J.P.,

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PostSubject: Captain Howard Hutton, J.P.,   Tue May 19, 2009 4:11 pm

Captain Howard Hutton, J.P., who was born on the 18th of July, 1832, was the youngest son of Thomas Hutton, J.P., D.L., City of Dublin, who lived at Eden Park, County Dublin, and whose family had settled in Ireland at the time of Oliver Cromwell. Captain Hutton spent two years at a school in German Switzerland, where he acquired a good knowledge of the German and French languages. He also, as was the custom at the school, learnt the two trades of carpentering and saddlery, a knowledge which proved of great use to him all through his life. He also studied at an agricultural school in Hampshire, England. His father having, owing to the prevailing prejudice of the times, refused to purchase him a commission in the army, he decided, at the age of nineteen, to emigrate to New Zealand, and landed in Auckland in the early part of 1852, in the same ship as Colonel George M. Nixon. He lived with Colonel Nixon at Mangere for five years, during which he learned farming, and also acquired such a thorough knowledge of Maor: that he passed the Government examination for interpreter in that language. As a colonist, traveller and soldier, Captain Hutton had his full share of moving incidents by field and flood. On one occasion Colonel Nixon, Mr. Richmond (afterwards Judge Richmond), Mr. Virtue, and Captain Hutton were blown to sea outside the Manukau, with only a loaf of bread on board, and it was with considerable difficulty that they made Onehunga again, after several days starvation and knocking about. His health breaking down in 1857 from hard work, he was ordered Home, it was feared, to die. He took a passage in the “William Denny,” for Sydney, and was wrecked on the New Zealand coast, living with the other passengers on shell fish and anything else they could pick up for some time, until a vessel came and took them on to Sydney. Thence he shipped, via Cape Horn, to England, and found his health was quite restored on his arrival Home. In December, of the same year, he married Emma Kenrick, eldest daughter of Archibald Kenrick, J.P., of West Brom-wich, near Birmingham. After spending the winter in the south of Spain and Algeria, he and his wife sailed in the ship “Kingston” for New Zealand, in the autumn of 1858, and landed in January, 1859, at Auckland, where their first child was born soon after. Mr. Hutton was offered the appointment of Magistrate and Government Agent among the Waikato Maoris, but, foreseeing the racial troubles ahead, and being unwilling to expose his family to the dangers of the position, he declined the offer, and, purchasing a farm at Otahuhu, he engaged in the breeding of pure Leicester sheep, of which he had imported some choice specimens. On the outbreak of the Maori war, Captain Hutton joined the Otahuhu Cavalry, under Colonel Nixon (Colonial Defence Force), and was elected lieutenant. On the death of Colonel Nixon he was promoted to the command of a troop, and served till the end of the war in 1866, when he let his farm, and took his family to England. The following winter Captain and Mrs Hutton visited Egypt, and ascended the Nile for some distance. In 1869 he returned to New Zealand by himself on private business, travelling via Panama, Peru, Chili, and Tahiti, and returned to England in 1870, across America. He lived with his family in Jersey, Channel Isles, from 1870 to 1875, and then at Wilsbridge, near Bath, till 1878. Having been ordered to take a complete change, and the Kaffir rebellion of that year having broken out, he sailed for the Cape, offered his services to Colonel Buller, commanding the Frontier Light Horse, was at once accepted, and made adjutant of the regiment. On the suppression of this rebellion he accompanied Colonel Buller's force on its march through Kaffraria, Pondoland, across Natal to Pieter-maritzburg, thence through the length of Natal, across the Transvaal to Pretoria, and on to Lydenburgh, where the regiment was employed against the chief Sekokuni. This was reputed the longest cavalry march which had ever been made. On the outbreak of the Zulu war the Frontier Light Horse marched to the Zulu border at Kambula, where they joined the column under Sir Evelyn Wood, who had his base at Utrecht. While there, the finances of the regiment requiring reorganisation, the paymaster's department was added to Captain Hutton's other duties, and the work was, as usual, carried out to the complete satisfaction of his superior officers. He was present with Colonel Buller on patrol at the finding of the Prince Imperial's dead body, afterwards handed over to the regular cavalry sent out to search for it, and also at the Hlobana affair, where, after storming the mountain, several corps were caught on its summit by the sudden appearance of a Zulu impi, and lost heavily, having to retreat down an almost precipitous native footpath, where the horses had often to jump down steps in the rock, six feet at a time, and where many of the wounded men, and, indeed, others too, blew out their brains rather than fall alive into the hands of the Zulus. Captain Hutton and others ably seconded Colonel Buller's efforts to keep the men cool and to get them safely away, and was one of the comparative few who succeeded in saving their horses. Once down the mountain, a running fight took place for some miles, the Zulus doing their best to cut off the troops, and those who still had horses conveyed those unhorsed well to the rear, and helped to keep back the pursuing enemy. It was on this occasion that Colonel Buller won the V.C. by saving the lives of six or seven men. The next day the battle of Kambula was fought, when the Zulu impi, 20,000 strong, the pick of Cete-wayo's army, made repeated and desperate assaults on the camp from early morning till four o'clock in the afternoon, and were so thoroughly defeated that they never again made anything like a determined stand. Captain Hutton was the last of the mounted men who were sent out to draw the enemy on, who entered camp as the Zulus came charging to the assault, and he led the pursuit which followed the breaking of the enemy, when ample reparation was exacted for the companions who had fallen the day before; he was mentioned in despatches by General Wood for his gallantry and distinguished services during the two days. He accompanied his regiment on the advance to Ulundi, and was present at the battle of that name, which ended the war. Captain Hutton returned to England in September, 1879. Already possessed of the New Zealand medal, he now received the South African one with clasp.
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PostSubject: Re: Captain Howard Hutton, J.P.,   Tue May 19, 2009 10:03 pm

Captain Hutton, J.P

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PostSubject: Re: Captain Howard Hutton, J.P.,   Fri Mar 26, 2010 9:02 pm

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HUTTON, Sir EDWARD THOMAS HENRY (1848-1923), British regular soldier and first organizer of the Australian Army, was born on 6 December 1848 at Torquay, Devon, England, only son of Edward Thomas Hutton, banker, and his wife Jacintha Charlotte, née Eyre. Hutton was educated at Eton after which he joined the 60th Rifles as an ensign in 1867. He was promoted captain in 1879 and major in 1883. In 1879-85 he saw much active service in Africa, in the Zulu War (1879), the first South African War (1881), the occupation of Egypt including the battle of Tel-el-Kebir (1882) and the Nile Expedition (1884-85). During this period he became deeply interested in the training and employment of mounted infantry with which he thrice served on operations. At Aldershot, England, he raised and commanded mounted infantry units in 1888-92, becoming recognized as one of the leading proponents of this form of mobility. A good speaker with a flair for publicity, he was identified as one of the 'Wolseley Ring' of army reformers. He also founded the military society at Aldershot as a professional forum.

In 1889 Hutton was promoted lieutenant-colonel and on 1 June, at St Paul's Anglican Church, Knightsbridge, London, he married Eleanor Mary, daughter of Lord Charles Paulet and granddaughter of the marquis of Winchester. His marriage and his appointment as aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria in 1892 afforded him a degree of influence unusual for an officer of his rank. Promoted colonel in 1892, 'Curly' Hutton became commandant of the New South Wales Military Forces with the local rank of major general in 1893. The advent of an able leader committed to military reform and with recent war experience revived the flagging spirit of the New South Wales forces. Hutton inspected units in every part of the colony, addressed public gatherings and brought the army before the community, beginning with a major review in Sydney in July 1893. On one of his inspections he travelled 680 miles (1094 km) in twenty days including 500 miles (805 km) on horseback. He visited training camps and exercises, delivered lectures to officers, fostered rifle clubs and supported the movement for raising national regiments such as the Irish Rifles.

Valuable as the public side of his work was, Hutton's reorganization of the New South Wales forces was even more important because it gave the colony an army capable of taking the field as part of a Federal force. He restructured the headquarters staff, persuaded the government to transfer the influential department of the military secretary from the chief secretary to his own command and organized administrative services to support the fighting arms. All this was achieved in a period of acute economic depression and in the face of political and military opposition. At the outset of his command he quarrelled bitterly with the premier, Sir George Dibbs, who had insisted on a reduction of £30,000 in the defence estimates, the practical result of which was the cancellation of the Easter training camps. When Hutton's views on this were reported in the press the premier publicly censured his commandant saying, inter alia, 'he is a good soldier but he writes and talks too much. He means well … but he has much to learn in regard to his official duties'. There was substance in this criticism. Hutton from the start aroused suspicion in some quarters by his outspoken remarks on helping 'England in her hour of need'. He also vigorously supported the movement for Federal defence; in a speech at Bathurst in January 1894 he advocated one defence policy for the six colonies, a common organization of their forces while preserving their identity, a Federal regiment of artillery and a Federal council of defence.

At the intercolonial military conference of October 1894 Hutton recommended the establishment of a council of defence, composed of delegates from all the colonies, to take charge of the forces in time of war or general emergency. This was supported by the conference but its recommendations made little impression on the colonial premiers. However, the startling successes of the Japanese forces in the war with China in 1894-95 provided Hutton with a useful argument for greater preparedness which he placed before his government in March 1895. A second meeting of the commandants, chaired by him, in January 1896 reaffirmed their proposals for the employment of the forces of every colony in the joint defence of Australia under the control of a council of defence, while rejecting a suggestion from London that their field forces should be liable to serve beyond Australia. By this time the political movement for Federation was overtaking the military movement and political leaders were looking for Federation as the necessary preliminary to national defence.

Hutton returned to England in March 1896. By the end of his command he and his wife had won the esteem of the New South Wales forces and Hutton had become an important public figure. A convinced Imperialist, he quickly began to propagate his ideas on Australian defence, addressing members of parliament on the topic and the Aldershot Military Society on 'Our comrades of Greater Britain'. In that address the concept of the Australian soon to be popularized by C. E. Bean was already discernible: 'The Australian is a born horseman. With his long, lean muscular thighs he is more at home on a horse than on his feet, and is never seen to a greater advantage than when mounted and riding across bush or a difficult country … Fine horsemen, hardy, self-reliant, and excellent marksmen, they are the beau ideal of Mounted Riflemen … Accustomed to shift for themselves in the Australian bush, and under the most trying conditions of heat and cold, they would thrive where soldiers unaccustomed to bush life would die'. This address was widely reported in Australia as well as in Britain. In April 1898 he read a paper on 'A co-operative system for the defence of the Empire' before the Royal Colonial Institute in London, using the Australian Federal defence scheme as the pattern for a scheme of Empire defence.

After a staff appointment in Ireland Hutton went to Canada in 1898 to command the Canadian Militia, a force which presented him with opportunities of reform as far-reaching as those in New South Wales. His aim was to build a national army for Canada which would also be available to serve abroad. Unwisely, he became involved in Canadian politics; his efforts to pursue a military policy of his own became known to the Canadian government and his public speeches at the time of the South African War in 1899, with other devious activities, led to a crisis in which he was forced to resign. He returned to his true sphere, serving in South Africa where, as a major general, he commanded a strong brigade of mounted infantry with great distinction in the advance to Pretoria. His brigade included Australian, New Zealand, Canadian and British units and he chose his staff largely from the colonial forces. His letters reveal his enthusiasm for the colonial citizen soldier and his awareness of a special responsibility in such a command which seemed to him as much political and Imperial as military. For his services in South Africa he was appointed K.C.M.G. in 1900.

In 1901 the first Australian government appointed Hutton to command and organize its land forces. He was recommended by Field Marshal Lord Roberts after several other officers had refused or were rejected by the government. He returned to Australia in January 1902 to tackle the congenial task of transforming the six colonial forces into a national army. He was warned by his friends about speech-making, his intemperate language and the need for tact when dealing with ministers, but such warnings were quickly forgotten. That year in Melbourne he published some of his addresses, The Defence and Defensive Power of Australia.

Hutton came with high hopes and with the intention of organizing an army capable of supporting Australian and British interests beyond the Australian Commonwealth. His command began with personal frustrations owing to the refusal of the War Office to promote him lieutenant-general despite his much wider responsibilities and the refusal of the Australians to allow him to bring his own aide-de-camp. The government was without a defence policy, having withdrawn its first defence bill after it had been roughly handled in parliament. Confident and ambitious, Hutton submitted a minute in April 1902 outlining the strategic situation of Australia and the military organization he considered appropriate to it. He proposed a garrison force to defend the major coastal centres and ports and a field force which could be sent wherever Australian interests might require it. His proposals aroused adverse criticism not only in Australia but also in the Colonial Defence Committee in London. A new draft defence bill, prepared by Hutton at the request of the prime minister, was passed and finally proclaimed in March 1904 but it made no provision for sending Australian troops overseas. Nevertheless the general shape of the Australian Army as proposed by Hutton was preserved.

Meanwhile Hutton was merging the colonial militia forces into an Australian citizen army, although not without difficulty. He was furiously attacked in parliament and the press over the disbandment of small volunteer units whose disappearance was necessary to the development of a properly organized force. There was an alarming shortage of trained officers but the posting of a regular officer to a command in place of an elderly and inefficient militia colonel aroused a storm of protest. Similarly the transfer of instructors from one State to another caused a crisis between South Australia and the Commonwealth in 1902. Hutton fought a losing battle in trying to maintain a headquarters staff adequate for its task but reduction of the numbers of permanent officers and soldiers was a ready and popular way of saving money, especially as there were no pensions for those retrenched.

Hutton promoted efficiency, discipline and training in every department of the new citizen army. Much that he proposed had to wait for better times and the better atmosphere which the general officer commanding was incapable of creating. Among his proposals were a military college, an Army Service Corps, an Ordnance Corps, and superannuation for the permanent force. He was successful in creating the field force and the garrison force, with complete war and peace establishments. The cavalry and other mounted units he transformed into mounted infantry known as light horse. On the other hand he could not obtain funds for the equipment and rearmament of the forces. He instituted staff rides for the tactical training of officers and non-commissioned officers and began the process of producing an educated officer corps. These changes involved a degree of control and centralization which inevitably aroused resentment in the States. That some officers were also members of parliament or influential politically hindered his plans.

Hutton quarrelled frequently with his ministers, some of whose interventions were petty or foolish in the extreme. A more tolerant man would have made allowances for their inexperience and ignorance and for the very novelty of the experiment in which all were engaged. But Hutton the autocrat and fighter was in a hurry. He had insisted on a three-year appointment rather than the five he had been offered and there was still much to be done. Fortunately he had an eye for talent; chief among his protégés were Lieutenant-Colonel (Major General Sir) W. T. Bridges, Lieutenant-Colonel (General Sir) Harry Chauvel and Captain (General Sir) Brudenell White, all of whom were to play important roles in the development of the army, especially in World War I. His constant battles with his ministers were Hutton's undoing. In 1904 a succession of ministers worked at revising the Defence Act along the lines of the recent reorganization of the War Office where the commander-in-chief had been replaced by an army council. No government wanted another G.O.C., whether British or Australian. Hutton strongly opposed this policy but the bill providing a military board in place of the G.O.C. was passed by the end of the year. By that time he had resigned after another furious quarrel over payment for a cable in cipher, the contents of which he refused to divulge.

The handicaps under which Hutton worked cannot be disregarded. He began his task in years of recession when weak governments were struggling to reduce expenditure. In three years he had to deal with four prime ministers and six ministers of defence. Parliament and the army itself included men of parochial outlook in military affairs and there was widespread popular suspicion of regular officers who were associated with 'militarism' and 'gold lace'. For all his soldierly qualities, professionalism, experience and zeal, Hutton was devoid of the tact which might have eased his relations with the ministers whom, too often, he despised. Perhaps his chief difficulty arose from his desire to serve two masters, the War Office and the Australian government. He saw the Australian Military Forces and the armies of other dominions as branches of one great British Army. He intended to give Australia an efficient citizen force for its own defence but he also wanted it to be ready to defend any part of the Empire. Despite the strength of the Imperial ties, Australian national sentiment and a growing appreciation of the country's proper interests were too strong for Hutton. However much he was disliked and distrusted by politicians, he was held in affection and admiration within the army and he left his mark on those who were to lead the Australian Imperial Force.

On his return to the United Kingdom he was given charge of administration in the Eastern Command and made G.O.C. of the 3rd British Division. At last in November 1907 he was promoted lieutenant-general on the eve of retirement. He was appointed K.C.B. in 1912. When Bridges was raising the Australian Imperial Force he suggested that it be commanded by Hutton. The government rejected the suggestion but Hutton was recalled by the War Office to organize and command the 21st British Division. A riding accident in 1915 brought about his final retirement.

During World War I Hutton corresponded with Bridges, Chauvel, White and others, rejoicing in Australian successes. After the victory of Romani in August 1916 he congratulated Chauvel, commanding the Anzac Mounted Division. 'You and your men are establishing Australia as a Nation great by land and sea — which shall stand for British Freedom, Justice and Honour in the Southern Seas for all time.' Senior officers of the A.I.F. would visit the old soldier whose health was declining. He died on 4 August 1923 and was buried with full military honours at Lyne near his home at Chertsey, Surrey. He was survived by his wife; they had no children. Portraits by Tom Roberts are in the Royal Military College, Duntroon, and Victoria Barracks, Sydney

Source: Australian Dictionary Of Biography
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PostSubject: Re: Captain Howard Hutton, J.P.,   Tue Oct 05, 2010 7:32 pm

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PostSubject: Re: Captain Howard Hutton, J.P.,   Fri Dec 31, 2010 11:43 pm

CAPTAIN HOWARD HUTTON joined the Otahuhu Volunteer Cavalry Troop in 1860, and served in all the events of the war up to 1865, when he left for the Cape, and took service in the Frontier Light Horse, under Lord Chelmsford, against the Zulus. He was mentioned in general orders, at Kambula, for his pluck in going to the front in the pursuit, where he acted as adjutant, and was highly complimented by Lord Chelmsford, Colonel J. North Crealock (Commander 95th Regiment), Brigadier-General Evelyn Wood, and Colonel Red vers Buller, who said in his despatches: "Captain Howard Hutton served under my command in the Frontier Light Horse from May, 1878, till August, 1879, during the latter part of the Kaffir war (1877-78), the operations against Sekukuni, in 1878, and throughout the Zulu war (1879). He was for the greater part adjutant of the Frontier Horse; but he latterly, at my request, undertook the duties of paymaster. In both positions, and throughout his service, he performed his duties thoroughly well." He is the possessor of the New Zealand and the South African medals and clasp.

The following testimonials from his commanding officers show the estimation in which Captain Hutton was held by them:--
"AUCKLAND, January 9th, 1866.

"MY DEAR HUTTON,--As you are about to leave the colony, and have stated to me you might probably like to join some Volunteer force at home, I think it but right to testify to your having been appointed Lieutenant in April, 1860; Captain in July, 1863; and Acting Captain Commandant in January, 1864. We have had a good deal of official business to transact together, and I can state that I was always satisfied with the manner you conducted the duties.
"I have always considered you one of the best and most efficient officers in

our Volunteer force. In this opinion I am aware your late lamented Commandant, Colonel Nixon, coincided with me.--Believe me, etc.

"H.C. BALNEAVIS, Lieut.-Colonel,
"Late Deputy Adjutant General of Militia and Volunteers, Auckland, New Zealand."
"CANNAMORE, BALLINA, February 23rd, 1868.

"I had the pleasure of becoming acquainted with Captain Hutton in New Zealand in the early part of 1861, but when I was appointed to the command of the colonial forces in Auckland in July, 1863, I became more intimately acquainted with him. He was then a captain of the Otahuhu squadron of the Royal Cavalry Volunteers, an admirable force, in beautiful order, and which did good service in the field.

"Captain Hutton was a good officer, well acquainted with his duties, and, very deservedly, was placed in command of the squadron previous to my leaving New Zealand in 1865.

"I feel a great interest in this gentleman, and can honestly recommend him for any appointment he may solicit and for which he may be eligible.
"J.T. GALLOWAY, Major-General, "Late commanding the Colonial Forces in New Zealand."

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PostSubject: Re: Captain Howard Hutton, J.P.,   Mon May 22, 2017 9:36 pm

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