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The Battle of Isandlwana: One of The Worst Defeats of The British Empire - Military History
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  Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu

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PostSubject: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Wed Jan 02, 2013 8:30 am

Hello and Happy New Year 2013 to all and a very good health Especially in 2013, this is the MOST important ...

I know that on this forum,there, especially fans of Isandhlwana and RD
most members of this forum are not interested particularly by the Zulu royal army,

That when one is interested in the Zulu royal army, it is still to speak of Isandhlwana and RD ...

Also, among those who have a lot of books, I'd like there have one or more members of the forum, do as Skippy to Ulundi, last year ...

Tell us about the battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu ...

Cheers

Pascal
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PostSubject: Battle Order Of The Zulu Royal Army At Gingindlovhu    Wed Jan 02, 2013 11:29 pm

Hi Rascal .
I will have a look now and see what I can find regarding the Battle Order of the zulu army at Gingindlovhu . You need to study mo
Cheers 90th. You need to study mo
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Wed Jan 02, 2013 11:39 pm

Yes thank you mon ami , it will not be a luxury ,good day and good read mon ami, I go to bed, it's almost 1.00 am !!!
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PostSubject: Battle Order Of The Zulu Army At Gingindlovhu   Thu Jan 03, 2013 12:52 am

Hi Rascal .
Bad news I'm sorry to say , I did look for nearly two hours and found the following from ' Fearful Hard Times ' by Castle & Knight .
'' Sadly , few zulu accounts of the battle have survived , and it is impossible to determine the disposition of the individual amabutho , but it seems that most of the regiments had representatives present , and that the total force numbered in excess of 11,000 men''.
Cheers 90th. You need to study mo
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Thu Jan 03, 2013 10:05 am

Hello and thnk you mon ami

It is not out of the woods and if you can not find , nobody of this forum found ...


Angus McBride in his No. 57 MAA page n°26 ,say this:

" The Zulu regiment which had tried to halt Pearson above the Inyezane were not those

dispatched by Cetshwayo to fall upon the relief force.It is an extraordinary fact that for this

hazardous assignement he sent Somopo at the head of the uVe , inGobamakhosi , umHlanga,

uMbonambi and umCijo.Although newly reinforced with youngsters ,all of these regiments had

borne the weight of Imperial rifle fire at Isandlwana ,and three had been at Kambula with

uNokhenke. Acting as lieutenant to Somopo was Dabulamanzi ,and with him were the

uThulwna who had lost hundreds of men at Rorcke's Drift."


If the regiments were reinforced with youth, their numbers would be complete and would give:

uVe : 13 amaviyo = 650 warriors

inGobamakhosi : 80 amaviyo = 5600 warriors

umHlanga : 20 amaviyo = 1000 warriors

uMbonambi : 30 amaviyo = 1500 warriors

umCijo : 70 amaviyo = 3500 warriors

uThulwana : 60 amaviyo = 3000 warriors

Total = 273 amaviyo = 15250 warriors


The amaviyo of all Zulu regiments have an average number of 50 warriors, except in the

inGobamakhosi, or they are 70 warriors by iviyo.


If the regiments were strengthened, as shown Mc Bride, there problematical because

historians give always a maximum of 11,000 to 12,000 warriors for the Zulu royal army at

Gingindlovu, and page 27 of his book, Mc Bride said:

"On the 2nd April Somopo sent his 10,000 - strong impi though the dawn mists aginst the north

side of the laager , as two horns raced to encircle it.Dabulamanzi was in command of the right

horn."

After Ian Knight Mehlokazulu's figure of 3500 is too hight for umCijo , for Ian Knight ,the umCijo

regimental total is of 2500 warriors and it's too low for Fynney...


After Ian Knight in his " Warrior n°14 " ,the uKhandempemvu (uMcijo) ibutho ,which fought in

1879 , had 12 izigaba containing a total of 49 companies ;according to British sources , it had

a total strength of about 2500 men ( in fact 49 x 50 = 2450 warriors )


The new total would therefore be:

uVe : 13 amaviyo = 650 warriors

inGobamakhosi : 80 amaviyo = 5600 warriors

umHlanga : 20 amaviyo = 1000 warriors

uMbonambi : 30 amaviyo = 1500 warriors

umCijo : 49 /50 amaviyo = 2450/ 2500 warriors

uThulwna : 60 amaviyo = 3000 warriors

Total = 252/253 amaviyo = 14250/14300 warriors


In my opinion if the figures from 10.000 to 12.000 warriors always given is accurate, the

regiments were not reinforced for Gingindlovu after Kambula ...


Other troubleshooting, with historians never know, when they talk about the umCijo if they

speak of the " administrative"corps called umCijo or one of the three regiments of this body,

because there is also a regiment in the corps, which is called umCijo (and also called

uKhandempemvu.)


And for calculations of effective, it distorts everything:

The " administrative"corps called umCijo therefore contained three regiments :

- umCijo = 49 /50 amaviyo = 2450/ 2500 warriors or 70 amaviyo = 3500 warriors

- unQakamatye = 100 amaviyo = 5000 warriors

- uMtulisaswi = 30 amaviyo = 1500 warriors

Total = 179/180 amaviyo = 8950/9000 warriors

or other total 200 amaviyo = 10000 warriors


So if it was he " administrative"corps called umCijo and not just the regiment of the same name

which was at Gingindlovu this we gives 6500 at-7550 warriors to supplement...


The regiments called unQakamatye and uMtulisaswi consisted of young men in the prime of

youth and ultra-nationalists then why would they not been at Gingindlovuwith with the regiment

called umCijo ?it does not hold up !!!


In my opinion if the figures from 10.000 to 12.000 warriors always given is accurate, the

regiments were not reinforced for Kambula after Isandhlwana and not reinforced for

Gingindlovu after Kambula , because if they were, they far exceed the 10,000 / 12,000 warriors

given by historians...


After my first calculation, if the theoretical strength of the Zulu royal army being of 273

amaviyo = 15250 warriors at Gingindlovu,The losses of these 6 regiments have been to

Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift, Hlobane ( The umCijo being the only Royal Zulu army Regiment

who fought there ...) and Kambula are of:

- 15250 warriors - 10000 = 5250 warriors placed hors de combat at Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula for the six regiments present at Gingindlovu...

- 15250 warriors - 11000 = 4250 warriors placed hors de combat at Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula for the six regiments present at Gingindlovu...


- 15250 warriors - 12000 =3250 warriors placed hors de combat at Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula for the six regiments present at Gingindlovu...


After my second calculation, if the theoretical strength of the Zulu royal army being of 252/253

amaviyo = 14250/14300 warriors at Gingindlovu,The losses of these 6 regiments have been to

Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift, Hlobane ( The umCijo being the only Royal Zulu army Regiment

who fought there ...) and Kambula are of:

- 14250/14300 warriors - 10000 = 4250/4300 warriors placed hors de combat at Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula for the six regiments present at Gingindlovu...


- 14250/14300 warriors - 11000 = 3250/3300 warriors placed hors de combat at Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula...


- 14250/14300 warriors - 12000 = 2250/2300 warriors placed hors de combat at Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula for the six regiments present at Gingindlovu...


And if the regiments called unQakamatye and uMtulisazwi were present at Gingindlovu ,The

losses of these 8 regiments have been to Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift, Hlobane ( The umCijo

being the only Royal Zulu army Regiment who fought there ...) and Kambula are of:

- 20750/20800 warriors - 10000 = 10750/10800 warriors placed hors de combat at

Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula for the 8 regiments present at

Gingindlovu...

- 20750/20800 warriors - 11000 = 9750/9800 warriors placed hors de combat at Isandhlwana,

Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula for the 8 regiments present at Gingindlovu...

- 20750/20800 warriors - 12000 = 8750/8800 warriors placed hors de combat at Isandhlwana,

Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula for the 8 regiments present at Gingindlovu...


But this may also give , if the regiments called unQakamatye and uMtulisas were present at

Gingindlovu ,The losses of these 8 regiments have been to Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift,

Hlobane ( The umCijo being the only Royal Zulu army Regiment who fought there ...) and

Kambula are of:

- 21750 warriors - 10000 = 11750 warriors placed hors de combat at Isandhlwana,

Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula for the 8 regiments present at Gingindlovu...

- 21750 warriors - 11000 = 10750 warriors placed hors de combat at Isandhlwana,

Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula for the 8 regiments present at Gingindlovu...

- 21750 warriors - 12000 = 9750 warriors placed hors de combat at Isandhlwana,

Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula for the 8 regiments present at Gingindlovu...


In my Opinion, none regiments have been strengthened after the battles of Isandhlwana,

Rorke's Drift, Hlobane and Kambula, otherwise they would have been much more than

10.000 , 11.000 or 12.000 at Gingindlovu ...


So that's six regiments but why exactly do uNokhenke it especially because it is the only Zulu

regiment have managed to take completely a fortified British position during the war?


For Kambula ,Mc Bride said, page 25:

"The Zulu right was made up of the uNokhenke and uMbonambi with the umCijo at the tip of the

horn.The inGobamakhosi formed the left horne,andin the centre the umHlanga,with the

uDloko,uThulwana and inDluyengwe,were renforced by the exultant abaQulusi from Hlobane."


But I have not seen too trusting huge mistakes he made ​​in his book.


Cheers

Pascal
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Sun Jan 06, 2013 4:23 pm

Great, that I found not bothering anyone ...?...
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PostSubject: Battle order of the zulu royal army at Gingindlovhu    Sun Jan 06, 2013 9:31 pm

Hi Rascal Very Happy .
I dont know how Mcbride has the Battle Order of the Zulu Army when Ian Knight doesnt have those details ! . Would be interesting to see if Lock , Quantrill or Ken Gillings have the Battle Order plan for the zulu attack at Gingindlovu ?.
Cheers Pascal the Rascal . The Marsupial Salute
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Mon Jan 07, 2013 7:36 am

Hello Skippy Very Happy

There is this book that made me discover and love the Zulu war in 1976/77, it was my bible until I read the books by Ian Knight and the excellent Ian Castle after that I say that there were about problem with Mc Bride, then I dropped this war for 20 years, until November 2011 ...

McBride lists all the regiments present at all the battles, these lists are ancient beings, as he quotes the regiment Umhlanga present at Isandhlwana, while it is never mentioned as present at the battle by more recent authors and place the regiment umBonambi at the far left of the Zulu left horn at Isandhlwana ???

And there is no bibliography in his book ???

Cheers

Pascal
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Mon Jan 07, 2013 6:39 pm

Gingindlovu. book “Zulu Vanquished”  covers the battle in detail including the units in the square and their position, plus the Zulu units, as well as a battle-map on page 143. Incidentally, the origin of the name “Gingindlovu” is of interest. It was based on the fight for supremacy between Prince Mbuyazi and his rival brother Cetshwayo. The two fought it out at the Battle of Ndondakusuka, 2 December 1856. Mbuyazi was slain. He had a tuft of hair growing from the back of his neck. After the battle, Cetshwayo built a homestead East of the battlefield and named it Gingindlovu, which in Zulu means “He, who swallowed the elephant.” (A reference to Mbuyazi who, because of the tuft of hair, was known as the ‘elephant.’)
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Mon Jan 07, 2013 7:03 pm

Oh good and where is the Battle Order of the zulu army at this battle ,please ?
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Mon Jan 07, 2013 7:37 pm

Not sure if this is of any help!!

"The Battle of Gingindlovu and the Relief of Eshowe 2/3 April 1879

Following the disaster at Isandlwana, plans were gradually evolved for a second invasion of Zululand from the lower drift of the Tugela River. Colonial units were reorganized and in some cases revived. With much difficulty, oxen and wagons were gradually obtained to replace those lost up to that date and Lord Chelmsford even managed to secure the alliance of John Dunn, the famous trader often referred to in this period of our history. His official title in his new role was to be Chief of Intelligence.
Several weeks passed while Lord Chelmsford prepared for the second invasion; and during this period he set about his task of preparing for this with ruthless precision, hampered by an obstinate and reluctant Natal Government, whose European subjects viewed his policy of re-arming the Natal Natives, their ranks reinforced by men of the Natal Native Contingent, with total disapproval. Meanwhile, Col Pearson, whom it will be recalled was besieged in Eshowe, patiently awaited the advance of the relief column, keeping his men occupied by strengthening the fortifications which surrounded the Mission Station at Kwa Mondi and executing the occasional raid on nearby kraals. It was not long before dysentery began to take its toll on the men within the confines of the fort and by the end of March, the food position had become critical and the draft oxen had begun to replace the slaughter cattle as a primary source of food. However, by this time the relief Column had already crossed the Tugela and was nearing Wombane ridge, and it is at this point that it is necessary to return to the activities of Lord Chelmsford.

By mid-March, Lord Chelmsford's preparations for the proposed relief of Eshowe had virtually been completed and he took personal command of this column which once again made Fort Pearson its base. By the 28th March all the troops and impedimenta had been transferred across the flooded Tugela River where Fort Tenedos was similarly used as a headquarters whilst the men were encamped in the area north of the precincts of the fort.

At this stage it is necessary to consider the make-up of this formidable force which consisted of two Divisions, an Advance and a Rear Division. The former was commanded by Lt Col T.A. Law of the Royal Artillery and consisted of two companies of 'the Buffs', five companies of the 99th Regt, and the entire 91st Regt, and, in addition, 350 men of the Naval Brigade.

The Rear Division was commanded by Lt Col W.L. Pemberton of the 3rd Battalion, 60th Rifles. Under him were the 57th Regt, six companies of his own 3rd/6Oth Rifles (commanded by Lt Col F.V. Northey, about whom more will be related later in this account) 190 sailors, and a company of the Royal Marine Light Infantry. In addition, the remnants of the Natal Native Contingent had been regrouped and posted to what was now referred to as the 4th and 5th Battalions, N.N.C. The Artillery for the invasion consisted of two 9-pr guns, two 24-pound rocket tubes, and two Gatling guns. Finally, Maj Percy Barrow commanded some 70 Mounted Infantry (which included a newly established Unit called the Natal Volunteer Guides, commanded by Capt Friend Addison) 130 Natal Natives, and 150 blacks supplied by John Dunn.
Chelmsford's new force totalled over 3300 whites and almost 2300 blacks. In view of the lessons learnt at Isandlwana, stringent measures were taken to ensure that such a debacle did not re-occur; ammunition was more evenly distributed throughout the column and strict laagering instructions were given for implementation when the column halted on overnight stops, with both out- and inlying pickets posted in strength around the camp.
With Chelmsford was an unbelievably long convoy of wagons and animals which stretched out his column to well over five kilometres! However, on the march this occasionally became more than 16 km, usually as a result of the column becoming held up at the numerous drifts which it encountered en route. This situation alone could have presented serious problems for Chelmsford had his adversaries been more tactically minded, for one need only observe the old drifts over the Inyoni and Amatikulu Rivers to appreciate the problems that were encountered when, in most cases, only one wagon at a time could cross the flooded rivers.
The march began at 06h00 on 29th March and the column made slow and steady progress, encountering the problems referred to.
The Amatikulu River was crossed by the Advance Division which then proceeded for approximately 2,5 km past the drift (which can still be seenjust to the left of the present bridge over the Amatikulu) and established a camp, to await the arrival of the Rear Division. The crossing had taken the column almost an entire day to complete and the distance between bivouacs was only approximately 3,5 km.
On the 1st April, Capt W.C.F. Molyneaux rode out of the camp, accompanied by John Dunn, to select a laager site for that night. They chose one on a slight rise near the south bank of the Inyezane River and close by the burnt out Gingindlovu military kraal. A certain amount of uncertainty about the exact locality of the site of this kraal has existed for many years but a great deal of recent research has established almost without doubt that it is situated on the farm Kia-Ora, belonging to Mr M. Kramer. The laager site has been almost bisected by the present road from Gingindhlovu to Eshowe and was a few metres east of the small military cemetery. Towards evening, the wagons had completed the laager and the men settled down to a wet, miserable night.
Maj. Barrow's scouts had reported the presence of Zulus in the vicinity of the Umisa ridge, a long feature which stretches in the shape of a half moon from the Amatikulu River in the West, to Umisa Hill, which is at beacon 153, above Overdene Estates. In addition, Col Pearson heliographed Chelmsford from Eshowe advising him that he could clearly observe a Zulu Impi approaching the Inyezane Valley. On the night of the 1st, Dunn and Capt Molyneaux rode out in the direction of the Inyezane River to check the presence of any Zulus across the stream and they later reported that a large number of Zulu camp fires were burning, indicating the presence of a large impi. It was generally expected that the Zulus would attack the following day.
Even as the camp stood to at first light on the 2nd April, the outlying pickets galloped in to announce an imminent attack by the Zulus. A heavy mist shrouded the surrounding countryside making visibility difficult. However, it was not even necessary to position the men, for they had all been primed for the attack and had taken up their posts as follows:
North (front) face- 60th Rifles
Right flank face - 57th Regiment
Left flank face - 99th Regiment and 'the Buffs'
Rear face - 91st Regiment

Each angle was manned by the Naval Brigade, Bluejackets from HMS Boadicea and Marines. The Gatling from Boadicea was mounted in the North-eastern corner and the two rocket tubes under Lt Kerr were positioned on the North-west corner, whereas the two 9-pr guns under Lt Kingscote covered the South-west. The second Gatling and two more rocket tubes covered the South-eastern approach and these were under Commander Brackenbury.
At 05h45, the outlying pickets of the 60th and 99th Regiment galloped in to herald the arrival of the Zulus. By 06h00, the attack had commenced on the north front where the Zulus had first been observed. They were commanded by Somapo and Dabulamanzi, who had been given strict instructions by Cetshwayo to prevent the relief column from linking up with Col Pearson in Eshowe. They were about to discover to their cost the effect of their disregard of these orders!
The Impi was first observed as the mist began to lift. Even before the impi crossed the Inyezane River, it had begun to split up into the traditional Zulu horn-formation, with the two horns running ahead of the chest or loins. As the impi drew opposite the laager, it entered the water and splashed across, the right wing and loins split up again and trotted over the Umisa Hill to the west. Having split up, it became clear that the column was facing no less than six Zulu Regiments, as well as a reserve, the former totalling over 10 000 and the reserve in excess of 2000. Most were warriors who had fought at Isandlwana, the regiments being the Uve, in Gobamakhosi, umCijo, umHlanga, uMbonambi, and the head-ringed uThulwana. The Gatling from HMS Boadicea rattled off the first shots at a range of 1000 metres, and the Zulus dropped into the long grass and reappeared some 300 metres from the shelter trench, at which range fire was brought to bear on them in volleys. This checked their advance to some extent, and prompted Lord Chelmsford to order Maj Barrow to make a somewhat premature charge with his mounted infantry, in an attempt to check the advance of the Zulu left horn. The Zulus were quick to realize that Barrow was uncomfortably far from the laager and threatened to cut him off in the rear. Chelmsford ordered him back to the safety of the laager but the men had to fight their way in.
Despite fearless determination, the Zulus were unable to advance to within more than 20 metres of the laager and this only by launching wave after wave of attacks. Despite the fact that the British were so well entrenched, they suffered some serious casualties. Lt Col Northey being hit in the shoulder, and although the naval surgeon managed to extract the bullet, at the time it was not realized that the slug had severed an artery, putting him out of the fight and resulting in his death some days later. Capt Barrow and Lt Col Crealock were also slightly wounded and Lt Courtenay and Capt Molyneux had their horses shot from under them.
Once the Zulus had realized that the Gatling had checked any further advance from the North, they turned their attention to the West (left face) of the laager and it was during this attack that Lt G.C.J. Johnson of the 99th Regt was killed. At the same time another attack developed from the direction of Umisa Hill, in the rear. Throughout the attack, the Zulus kept up a withering fire from behind the cover of bushes or long grass.
At this stage, Chelmsford ordered Maj Barrow to attack once again with his mounted infantry. They had been engaged in clearing the front face of the laager from the outside and accordingly redirected their attention to the impi's right flank. It was probably this manoeuvre that finally broke the Zulus' determination, coupled with the fact that they realized that they were unable to penetrate the laager from the rear, which they had thought poorly defended. On the appearance of Barrow's men, the Zulus broke and started their retreat, hotly pursued by the Mounted Infantry and the Natal Native Contingent.
The pursuit was continued for several kilometres, resulting in the flight becoming a rout. The reserve impi on Umisa Hill joined the general exodus and by 07h30 the Zulus had all but disappeared. Many of the fleeing warriors were sabred by the Mounted Infantry and whilst Chelmsford claims that they were highly successful, D.R. Morris mentions in 'The Washing of the Spears' that many of the blows were successfully parried by the warriors' rawhide shields.
The Zulus lost heavily. Over 470 bodies were buried initially and more than 200 were subsequently found. The Gatling gun and artillery in particular took a heavy toll; in addition, scores were wounded, many to die in solitude later. Hundreds of Martini Henry rifles were recovered, most of which bore the stamp of the 24th Regiment on their butts; grim reminders of the disaster at Isandlwana some nine weeks earlier. The British lost two officers and 11 other ranks killed and about 50 wounded, and the dead were buried close to the laager where they lie to this day.
Those still besieged in Eshowe who had not fallen ill with fever, including Col Pearson, observed much of the battle of Gingindlovu from vantage points overlooking the coastal plain below. Most of the Zulus who had participated in the siege had joined the impis engaged in action. Once it had become clear that the Zulus had been routed, Pearson flashed his congratulations to Chelmsford by heliograph, the latter politely acknowledging and informing Pearson that he anticipated arriving in Eshowe the following day.
Early on the 3rd, a flying column left the camp at Gingindlovu and proceeded along the track to Eshowe, leaving the rest of the invasion force to prepare to advance along a route closer to the coast. Col Pearson rode out to meet them and the column trickled in to the fort at Kwa Mondi, the first regiment to enter being the 91st Highlanders and the last man arriving at about midnight: Eshowe had finally been relieved after a siege that had lasted some 10 weeks. The Eshowe garrison left the fort and proceeded to Fort Pearson, by which time an additional two officers and two other ranks had died of fever.
Lord Chelmsford followed Pearson out of Eshowe some 24 hours later and reached Gingindlovu on the 7th April. Here, the command of the column was handed to Col Pemberton who established a new advance base approximately 8 km from Gingindlovu, overlooking the Inyezane River, which was named Fort Chelmsford.
Of the battlefield today, little remains. Mr Kramer has excavated numerous relics, and apart from the small military cemetery, there is very little evidence of the trenches or their whereabouts apart from the occasional cartridge case which is exposed by the elements. A small granite cross alongside the road at the turnoff to Kia Ora is the sole reminder of this short, sharp, but important battle".

Bibliography

Morris D.R. The Washing of the Spears, London Jonathan Cape, 1965.
Burns, C.T. The Last Zulu King, London Longmans, 1963.
Trench & Co., 1883 (re-print T.W. Griggs & Co 1975)
Lugg, H.C. Historic Natal and Zululand, Pietermaritzburg Shuter & Shooter, 1949.
Bourquin S. (comp) The Zulu War of 1879 as reported in 'The Graphic' Durban 1965.
Bourquin S. and Johnston, T.M. (comps) The Zulu War of 1879 as reported in 'The Illustrated London News' Durban 1971.
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Mon Jan 07, 2013 7:38 pm

Not sure if this is of any help!!

"The Battle of Gingindlovu and the Relief of Eshowe 2/3 April 1879

Following the disaster at Isandlwana, plans were gradually evolved for a second invasion of Zululand from the lower drift of the Tugela River. Colonial units were reorganized and in some cases revived. With much difficulty, oxen and wagons were gradually obtained to replace those lost up to that date and Lord Chelmsford even managed to secure the alliance of John Dunn, the famous trader often referred to in this period of our history. His official title in his new role was to be Chief of Intelligence.
Several weeks passed while Lord Chelmsford prepared for the second invasion; and during this period he set about his task of preparing for this with ruthless precision, hampered by an obstinate and reluctant Natal Government, whose European subjects viewed his policy of re-arming the Natal Natives, their ranks reinforced by men of the Natal Native Contingent, with total disapproval. Meanwhile, Col Pearson, whom it will be recalled was besieged in Eshowe, patiently awaited the advance of the relief column, keeping his men occupied by strengthening the fortifications which surrounded the Mission Station at Kwa Mondi and executing the occasional raid on nearby kraals. It was not long before dysentery began to take its toll on the men within the confines of the fort and by the end of March, the food position had become critical and the draft oxen had begun to replace the slaughter cattle as a primary source of food. However, by this time the relief Column had already crossed the Tugela and was nearing Wombane ridge, and it is at this point that it is necessary to return to the activities of Lord Chelmsford.

By mid-March, Lord Chelmsford's preparations for the proposed relief of Eshowe had virtually been completed and he took personal command of this column which once again made Fort Pearson its base. By the 28th March all the troops and impedimenta had been transferred across the flooded Tugela River where Fort Tenedos was similarly used as a headquarters whilst the men were encamped in the area north of the precincts of the fort.

At this stage it is necessary to consider the make-up of this formidable force which consisted of two Divisions, an Advance and a Rear Division. The former was commanded by Lt Col T.A. Law of the Royal Artillery and consisted of two companies of 'the Buffs', five companies of the 99th Regt, and the entire 91st Regt, and, in addition, 350 men of the Naval Brigade.

The Rear Division was commanded by Lt Col W.L. Pemberton of the 3rd Battalion, 60th Rifles. Under him were the 57th Regt, six companies of his own 3rd/6Oth Rifles (commanded by Lt Col F.V. Northey, about whom more will be related later in this account) 190 sailors, and a company of the Royal Marine Light Infantry. In addition, the remnants of the Natal Native Contingent had been regrouped and posted to what was now referred to as the 4th and 5th Battalions, N.N.C. The Artillery for the invasion consisted of two 9-pr guns, two 24-pound rocket tubes, and two Gatling guns. Finally, Maj Percy Barrow commanded some 70 Mounted Infantry (which included a newly established Unit called the Natal Volunteer Guides, commanded by Capt Friend Addison) 130 Natal Natives, and 150 blacks supplied by John Dunn.
Chelmsford's new force totalled over 3300 whites and almost 2300 blacks. In view of the lessons learnt at Isandlwana, stringent measures were taken to ensure that such a debacle did not re-occur; ammunition was more evenly distributed throughout the column and strict laagering instructions were given for implementation when the column halted on overnight stops, with both out- and inlying pickets posted in strength around the camp.
With Chelmsford was an unbelievably long convoy of wagons and animals which stretched out his column to well over five kilometres! However, on the march this occasionally became more than 16 km, usually as a result of the column becoming held up at the numerous drifts which it encountered en route. This situation alone could have presented serious problems for Chelmsford had his adversaries been more tactically minded, for one need only observe the old drifts over the Inyoni and Amatikulu Rivers to appreciate the problems that were encountered when, in most cases, only one wagon at a time could cross the flooded rivers.
The march began at 06h00 on 29th March and the column made slow and steady progress, encountering the problems referred to.
The Amatikulu River was crossed by the Advance Division which then proceeded for approximately 2,5 km past the drift (which can still be seenjust to the left of the present bridge over the Amatikulu) and established a camp, to await the arrival of the Rear Division. The crossing had taken the column almost an entire day to complete and the distance between bivouacs was only approximately 3,5 km.
On the 1st April, Capt W.C.F. Molyneaux rode out of the camp, accompanied by John Dunn, to select a laager site for that night. They chose one on a slight rise near the south bank of the Inyezane River and close by the burnt out Gingindlovu military kraal. A certain amount of uncertainty about the exact locality of the site of this kraal has existed for many years but a great deal of recent research has established almost without doubt that it is situated on the farm Kia-Ora, belonging to Mr M. Kramer. The laager site has been almost bisected by the present road from Gingindhlovu to Eshowe and was a few metres east of the small military cemetery. Towards evening, the wagons had completed the laager and the men settled down to a wet, miserable night.
Maj. Barrow's scouts had reported the presence of Zulus in the vicinity of the Umisa ridge, a long feature which stretches in the shape of a half moon from the Amatikulu River in the West, to Umisa Hill, which is at beacon 153, above Overdene Estates. In addition, Col Pearson heliographed Chelmsford from Eshowe advising him that he could clearly observe a Zulu Impi approaching the Inyezane Valley. On the night of the 1st, Dunn and Capt Molyneaux rode out in the direction of the Inyezane River to check the presence of any Zulus across the stream and they later reported that a large number of Zulu camp fires were burning, indicating the presence of a large impi. It was generally expected that the Zulus would attack the following day.
Even as the camp stood to at first light on the 2nd April, the outlying pickets galloped in to announce an imminent attack by the Zulus. A heavy mist shrouded the surrounding countryside making visibility difficult. However, it was not even necessary to position the men, for they had all been primed for the attack and had taken up their posts as follows:
North (front) face- 60th Rifles
Right flank face - 57th Regiment
Left flank face - 99th Regiment and 'the Buffs'
Rear face - 91st Regiment

Each angle was manned by the Naval Brigade, Bluejackets from HMS Boadicea and Marines. The Gatling from Boadicea was mounted in the North-eastern corner and the two rocket tubes under Lt Kerr were positioned on the North-west corner, whereas the two 9-pr guns under Lt Kingscote covered the South-west. The second Gatling and two more rocket tubes covered the South-eastern approach and these were under Commander Brackenbury.
At 05h45, the outlying pickets of the 60th and 99th Regiment galloped in to herald the arrival of the Zulus. By 06h00, the attack had commenced on the north front where the Zulus had first been observed. They were commanded by Somapo and Dabulamanzi, who had been given strict instructions by Cetshwayo to prevent the relief column from linking up with Col Pearson in Eshowe. They were about to discover to their cost the effect of their disregard of these orders!
The Impi was first observed as the mist began to lift. Even before the impi crossed the Inyezane River, it had begun to split up into the traditional Zulu horn-formation, with the two horns running ahead of the chest or loins. As the impi drew opposite the laager, it entered the water and splashed across, the right wing and loins split up again and trotted over the Umisa Hill to the west. Having split up, it became clear that the column was facing no less than six Zulu Regiments, as well as a reserve, the former totalling over 10 000 and the reserve in excess of 2000. Most were warriors who had fought at Isandlwana, the regiments being the Uve, in Gobamakhosi, umCijo, umHlanga, uMbonambi, and the head-ringed uThulwana. The Gatling from HMS Boadicea rattled off the first shots at a range of 1000 metres, and the Zulus dropped into the long grass and reappeared some 300 metres from the shelter trench, at which range fire was brought to bear on them in volleys. This checked their advance to some extent, and prompted Lord Chelmsford to order Maj Barrow to make a somewhat premature charge with his mounted infantry, in an attempt to check the advance of the Zulu left horn. The Zulus were quick to realize that Barrow was uncomfortably far from the laager and threatened to cut him off in the rear. Chelmsford ordered him back to the safety of the laager but the men had to fight their way in.
Despite fearless determination, the Zulus were unable to advance to within more than 20 metres of the laager and this only by launching wave after wave of attacks. Despite the fact that the British were so well entrenched, they suffered some serious casualties. Lt Col Northey being hit in the shoulder, and although the naval surgeon managed to extract the bullet, at the time it was not realized that the slug had severed an artery, putting him out of the fight and resulting in his death some days later. Capt Barrow and Lt Col Crealock were also slightly wounded and Lt Courtenay and Capt Molyneux had their horses shot from under them.
Once the Zulus had realized that the Gatling had checked any further advance from the North, they turned their attention to the West (left face) of the laager and it was during this attack that Lt G.C.J. Johnson of the 99th Regt was killed. At the same time another attack developed from the direction of Umisa Hill, in the rear. Throughout the attack, the Zulus kept up a withering fire from behind the cover of bushes or long grass.
At this stage, Chelmsford ordered Maj Barrow to attack once again with his mounted infantry. They had been engaged in clearing the front face of the laager from the outside and accordingly redirected their attention to the impi's right flank. It was probably this manoeuvre that finally broke the Zulus' determination, coupled with the fact that they realized that they were unable to penetrate the laager from the rear, which they had thought poorly defended. On the appearance of Barrow's men, the Zulus broke and started their retreat, hotly pursued by the Mounted Infantry and the Natal Native Contingent.
The pursuit was continued for several kilometres, resulting in the flight becoming a rout. The reserve impi on Umisa Hill joined the general exodus and by 07h30 the Zulus had all but disappeared. Many of the fleeing warriors were sabred by the Mounted Infantry and whilst Chelmsford claims that they were highly successful, D.R. Morris mentions in 'The Washing of the Spears' that many of the blows were successfully parried by the warriors' rawhide shields.
The Zulus lost heavily. Over 470 bodies were buried initially and more than 200 were subsequently found. The Gatling gun and artillery in particular took a heavy toll; in addition, scores were wounded, many to die in solitude later. Hundreds of Martini Henry rifles were recovered, most of which bore the stamp of the 24th Regiment on their butts; grim reminders of the disaster at Isandlwana some nine weeks earlier. The British lost two officers and 11 other ranks killed and about 50 wounded, and the dead were buried close to the laager where they lie to this day.
Those still besieged in Eshowe who had not fallen ill with fever, including Col Pearson, observed much of the battle of Gingindlovu from vantage points overlooking the coastal plain below. Most of the Zulus who had participated in the siege had joined the impis engaged in action. Once it had become clear that the Zulus had been routed, Pearson flashed his congratulations to Chelmsford by heliograph, the latter politely acknowledging and informing Pearson that he anticipated arriving in Eshowe the following day.
Early on the 3rd, a flying column left the camp at Gingindlovu and proceeded along the track to Eshowe, leaving the rest of the invasion force to prepare to advance along a route closer to the coast. Col Pearson rode out to meet them and the column trickled in to the fort at Kwa Mondi, the first regiment to enter being the 91st Highlanders and the last man arriving at about midnight: Eshowe had finally been relieved after a siege that had lasted some 10 weeks. The Eshowe garrison left the fort and proceeded to Fort Pearson, by which time an additional two officers and two other ranks had died of fever.
Lord Chelmsford followed Pearson out of Eshowe some 24 hours later and reached Gingindlovu on the 7th April. Here, the command of the column was handed to Col Pemberton who established a new advance base approximately 8 km from Gingindlovu, overlooking the Inyezane River, which was named Fort Chelmsford.
Of the battlefield today, little remains. Mr Kramer has excavated numerous relics, and apart from the small military cemetery, there is very little evidence of the trenches or their whereabouts apart from the occasional cartridge case which is exposed by the elements. A small granite cross alongside the road at the turnoff to Kia Ora is the sole reminder of this short, sharp, but important battle".

Bibliography

Morris D.R. The Washing of the Spears, London Jonathan Cape, 1965.
Burns, C.T. The Last Zulu King, London Longmans, 1963.
Trench & Co., 1883 (re-print T.W. Griggs & Co 1975)
Lugg, H.C. Historic Natal and Zululand, Pietermaritzburg Shuter & Shooter, 1949.
Bourquin S. (comp) The Zulu War of 1879 as reported in 'The Graphic' Durban 1965.
Bourquin S. and Johnston, T.M. (comps) The Zulu War of 1879 as reported in 'The Illustrated London News' Durban 1971.


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PostSubject: Battle Order Of The Royal Zulu Army At Gingindlovu   Mon Jan 07, 2013 11:07 pm

Hi All .
All the references and books etc only give the names of the regiments involved , but what Pascal is after is the whereabouts of the individual zulu regts in the attack formation , for example were the uMbonambi in the left or right horn or formed part of the chest ? . This is the information that Pascal is after , and in my earlier post I mentioned that Ian Knight said there was unfortunatley no existing record . I contacted forum member Ken Gillings yesterday , and he also verified this fact, that there is no record of the wherabouts of the individual Amabutho in their attack .
Cheers 90th. Salute
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Mon Jan 07, 2013 11:10 pm

The Impi was first observed as the mist began to lift. Even before the impi crossed the Inyezane River, it had begun to split up into the traditional Zulu horn-formation, with the two horns running ahead of the chest or loins. As the impi drew opposite the laager, it entered the water and splashed across, the right wing and loins split up again and trotted over the Umisa Hill to the west. Having split up, it became clear that the column was facing no less than six Zulu Regiments, as well as a reserve, the former totalling over 10 000 and the reserve in excess of 2000. Most were warriors who had fought at Isandlwana, the regiments being the Uve, in Gobamakhosi, umCijo, umHlanga, uMbonambi, and the head-ringed uThulwana.

Pascal this is about as good as it gets!!!!
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Tue Jan 08, 2013 6:49 pm

Zulu battle order for Gingindlovu:

"It was named the ‘Southern Force.’ (The Northern Force was to face Wood and was numerically superior to the Southern Force.)
Overall commander was Somopho kaZikihala who was chief of the Thembu people and part of Cetshwayo’s inner circle.  He controlled the area north of Eshowe from his ikhanda ‘emaNgweni.’
Under his command was Prince Dabulamanzi, together with the following:
Sigewelegeewele kaMhlekehleke of the Ngadi lineage who commanded the Nkobamakosi  ibutho. They formed the chest for the battle.
Elements of the uNokhenke, uMbonambi and the Hlalangwezwa regiments were all present, as was chief Mavumengwana kaNdedla Ntuli, second-in-command at Islandlwana. The Hlalangwezwa regiment was commanded by Phalane kaMdinwa, who had previously been appointed to high command by King Mpande.
Somopho’s army was estimated to be in the region of 10,000 to 12,000 men.
Dabulamanzi ( who controlled the immediate surrounds of Eshowe) formed the right wing that advanced over uMisi ridge. The centre was to move from the valley behind Wombane Spur, where it had spent the night. It would split into two to encircle the east and south sides of the British square. The reserve was held in  reserve on the hills to the north-east of Nyezane, commanded by Somopho.
John Laband independently  confirms, in his book, ‘The Anglo-Zulu War,’ that Somopho’s force comprised 115 companies of over 100 men each, totalling some 12,000 attacking force, thus further confirming our estimate shown above."

From Peter Quantrill. Zulu War Author and Historian.
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PostSubject: Battle Order Of The Royal Army At Gingindlovu   Tue Jan 08, 2013 11:05 pm

Hi Pete .
Good get , at least that gives Pascal a bit of info .
Cheers 90th.
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Fri Jan 11, 2013 8:51 am

Hello to all

Thank you to Pete, 24 th, 90 th ( light infantry mounted on Austrailian) and Little Hand ...

What is this?

1 - The Hlalangwezwa regiments scratch

2 - Somopho’s force comprised 115 companies of over 100 men each scratch

Me I was always told that all amaviyo Zulu were 50 men, except those of the regiment Nkobamakosi who were of 70 men ...

They changed the theoretical number of warriors and the organizations of their companies and thus their regiments ?

But when???

- The right horn under Dabulamanzi with the ibuthos : scratch

- The chest under (It would split into two :scratch:chest + left horn scratch ) with the

ibuthos : scratch

- The loins under Somopho with the ibuthos : scratch

Cheers

Pascal

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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Fri Jan 11, 2013 8:58 am

90 th = Colonel of the KMLI ( light infantry mounted on Kangouroo) Very Happy Very Happy Very Happy
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Fri Jan 11, 2013 9:12 am

But on this forum, nobody knows if Lock, Quantrill or Ken Gillings Battle Order Have the deployment of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu?. scratch
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Wed Jan 30, 2013 7:41 am

Hello to all


What is this?

1 - The Hlalangwezwa regiments ?

2 - Somopho’s force comprised 115 companies of 100 men each ?

Me I was always told that all amaviyo Zulu were 50 men, except those of the regiment Nkobamakosi who were of 70 men ...

They changed the theoretical number of warriors and the organizations of their companies and thus their regiments ?

But when???

So for the SECOND INVASION & Ulundi also , ZULUS companies would have gone to 100 men?

Who decreed that ...?

Cheers

Pascal
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Sat Feb 02, 2013 3:28 pm

Hi all

Above, it was written : "John Laband independently confirms, in his book, ‘The Anglo-Zulu War,’ that Somopho’s force comprised 115 companies of over 100 men each, totalling some 12,000 attacking force "


Anyone knows the source of this quotation of Laband ???. I've never heard of a source or it is stated that there were 115 companies in the Zulu Royal Army at Gingindlovu. The Zulu Royal Army of 12,000 Zulu warriors, yes, but 115 companies in the Zulu Royal Army at 100 men each, no.

nor Gingindlovu, nor in other battles ...

Here is the organizational structure of the Zulu army in this battle:


uVe 500 Warriors 10 Amaviyo

Ngobamakhosi 4900 70

umCijo 3000 60

Umhlanga 500 10

uMbonambi 1000 20

uThulwane 1500 30

Total 11,400 190

Cheers

Pascal
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Sat Feb 02, 2013 3:37 pm

My organization has exploded as the Zulu army in this battle, am again ...

uVe 500 Warriors 10 Amaviyo

Ngobamakhosi 4900 Warriors 70 Amaviyo a

umCijo 3000 Warriors 60 Amaviyo

Umhlanga 500 Warriors 10 Amaviyo

uMbonambi 1000 Warriors 20 Amaviyo

uThulwane 1500 Warriors 30 Amaviyo

Total 11,400 Warriors 190 Amaviyo

There were 50 warriors by iviyo except inthe Ngobamakhosi who had 70 warriors per iviyo...

Cheers

Pascal
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Tue Feb 05, 2013 10:33 am

Hi all

I made the organization of the zulu royal army at Gingindlovu by deduction of contemporary sources.

We know the names of the zulu regiments who participated in the battle of Gingindhlovu and we know the number of men in each regiment at the beginning of the war.

Must reduce the numbers a bit because of the killed of Isandhlwana Rorke's Drift Hlobane and Kambula and we arrive at a figure between 11.400 to 12.000 warriors for Gingindlovu...

Cheers

Pascal
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Mon Apr 01, 2013 7:47 am

Hi Pascal

Given their numbers, this battle of Gingindlovu like the battle of Ulundi are inglorious and shameful victory for the British.

warrior
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PostSubject: Re: Battle order of the Zulu royal army at Gingindlovu   Mon Apr 01, 2013 8:58 am

Warrior

You're crazy :p;:

Pascal the Rascal
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